Glossary of Pipe & Pipe Related Industry Terms
AAR – Association of American Railroads
AGA – American Gas Association
AISI – American Iron & Steel Institute
ANSI – American National Standards Institute – Formerly ASA
API – American Petroleum Institute
ASA – American Standard Institute – Now known as ANSI
ASM – American Society for Metals
ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM – American Society for Testing Materials
AWWA – American Water Works Association
BALES – Banded lifts of pipe
BAR MILL – Rolling mill where blooms are processed for form billets
BESS – Bessemer
BEVEL – The angle formed between the prepared edge of the end of the pipe and a plane perpendicular to the surface.
Standard line pipe bevel is 30 degrees.
BILLET – Round, solid bar of steel which is pierced to form a seamless tube or pipe.
BLK – Black – Term used when O.D. surface of pipe is protected with a varnish-type oil. Also applies to bare pipe to denote
BLOOM – A semifinished hot rolled product produced on a blooming mill.
B.O.F. – Basic Oxygen Furnace
B.O.P. – Basic Oxygen Process
BRIGGS STANDARD – A standard of thread dimensions. Same as American Standard
B.T.U. – British Thermal Unit
BLDS – Bundles – practice of packaging pipe from NPS 1/8 to NPS 1-1/2. Pieces per bundle vary with size.
BURST TEST -A destructive hydraulic test to determine actual yield strength and ultimate strength of seamless
and welded pipe.
B.W. Butt Weld Pipe – See Continuous Weld Pipe
B.W.G. – Birmingham Wire Gauge
CASING – Pipe used as a structural retainer for the walls of a water, gas, or oil well.
C.D. – Cold Drawn – Drawing pipe or tubing through a die to reduce diameter and wall, to obtain closer tolerances, a better
finish or higher physical properties.
CHAMFER – A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner. A finishing operation prior to threading.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES – Normally associated with a limited number of chemical elements. Minimum or maximum limits
are established in most ASTM and API specifications.
CUT LENGTH – Pipe cut to a specific length as ordered.
CON CAST – Continuous Cast
CONDUIT – Pipe serving as a duct for electrical wiring. Usually supplied in 10 foot lengths, threaded and coupled.
Pipe used is normally galvanized, slightly lighter than standard weight with a smooth interior surface.
CPLG – Coupling – threaded sleeve used to connect two lengths of pipe.
C.W. – Continuous Weld – method of producing pipe normally in sizes from ½ inch to 4 inch.
CU – Copper
C.W.T. – per hundred weight
DIA – Diameter
DIE STAMPING – Permanent marking placed on pipe as required in some specifications.
DOUBLE EXTRA HEAVY -Also known as double extra strong. Available from NPS 1/2 to NPS 8 nominal pipe. Wall
thickness is twice as heavy as extra heavy pipe with the exception of 8 inch diameter.
DRL – Double Random Length (35 foot minimum average)
DRIFTED – Attaining a certain minimum I.D. clearance by pushing a mandrel through pipe or tubing.
DRIVE PIPE – Pipe used for driving into ground in water well applications. Supplied with drive coupling.
DUCTILITY – The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. Measured by elongation in a
ERW – Electric Resistance Weld Pipe – method of producing pipe normally in sizes from 2-3/8″ OD through 22″ OD.
E.U.E. – External Upset Ends – used in API tubing and drill pipe.
EXPANDED PIPE – Pipe which has been enlarged circumferentially by mechanical or hydraulic pressure.
EXTRA HEAVY – Also known as extra strong – pipe with walls heavier than standard weight. Same as schedule 80 in sizes
NPS 1/8 to NPS 8 diameter.
F.O.B. – Free on Board
FRT – Freight
GALV – Galvanizing – coating pipe with a protective coating of zinc.
GRADE A OR B – Designations used to indicate minimum yield and tensile strengths of steel in seamless and welded pipe.
G.T. – Gross Ton – 2,240 pounds
HYDROSTATIC TESTING – High pressure water test to predetermine pressures as required by specifications.
I.D. – Inside Diameter – The O.D. measurement less double the wall thickness is the I.D. measurement of a pipe or tube.
INGOT – Usually first solid form of steel. Suitable for reworking or remelting.
I.P.S. – Iron Pipe Size – Same as nominal size from 1/8 inch to 12 inch.
JOINT – Term used to refer to one length of pipe.
LGTH – Length
L.T.C. – Long threads and coupling (OCTG)
LARGE O.D. PIPE – Pipe NPS 14 and larger
LW. – Lap Weld – Old method of producing pipe 5 inch diameter and over. Has not been produced for 25+ years.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES – Tensile strength, elongation, hardness and fatigue limit of steel.
MID-WELDS – Two or more joints welded to form one long joint.
MINIMUM WALL – Minimum thickness permissible calculated by subtracting minus tolerance from nominal wall.
MN – Manganese
N.A.S.P.D. – The National Association of Steel Pipe Distributors
N.B.S. – National Bureau of Standards
NI – Nickel
NIPPLE – Short length of pipe 12 inches and under normally threaded both ends.
NOM – Nominal – name given to standard pipe designations 1/8 inch through 12 inch. Does not indicate actual
I.D. measurements. Wall thickness are also expressed as nominal.
N.T. – Net Ton – 2,000 pounds
O.D. – Outside diameter
O.H. – Open hearth
PCS – Pieces
P.E. – Plain ends
PERC – Plain end roller cut
PESC – Plain end square cut or saw cut or machine cut
PICKLING – Pipe immersed in acid bath to remove scale, oil, dirt, etc.
PROTECTOR – Sleeve with threads to protect threads
PSI – Pounds per square inch.
RANGE – Allowable lengths in oil field casing and tubing. Expressed as Range 1(20 foot R/L), Range 2 (30 foot R/L) and
Range 3 (40 foot R/L).
R/L – Random Length. Varying lengths of pipe.
R&D – Reamed and Drifed – commonly used in water wells to guarantee I.D. clearance
SAW – Submerged Arc Weld – a method of producing very large OD pipe.
SCALE – An oxide of iron which forms on the surface of steel.
SCHEDULE NUMBERS – ANSI numbers assigned to pipe to designate wall thickness.
SKELP – Long narrow strips of plate of correct thickness and width to produce CW or ERW pipe.
SMLE – Seamless – pipe without a seam or weld in the circumference.
SPEC – Specification
SRL – Single Random Lengths – usually 16 foot to 22 foot. Minimum average of 17’6″.
S.T. & C. – Short Thread & Coupled (OCTG).
STD – Standard – Same as Sch. 40, NPS 1/8- NPS 10
STENCIL – Identification painted on pipe. Specification, size, wall, grade, test pressure, method of manufacture and mill
identification are usually indicated.
STRAND(S) – Product of Continuous Cast Process
STRETCH REDUCE – A technique employed in the manufacture of CW pipe in which one or several master sizes of pipe
are produced, then stretched reduced through a number of rolls to achieve a variety of pipe
diameters. Also used in certain instances in seamless and ERW manufacturing.
TBE – Thread Both Ends
T & C – Threaded and Coupled
TOE – Thread One End
TENSILE STRENGTH – Ultimate bursting strength to resist being pulled apart. Expressed in P.S.I.
TUBE ROUND – Billet
VICTAULIC JOINT – Pipe is grooved near ends to accommodate a victaulic coupling.
YIELD STRENGTH – The tensile stress required to produce a total elongation of .5 percent of the gauge length as
determined by an extensometer. Expressed in P.S.I.
XHY – Extra Heavy (Extra Strong)
XXHY – Double Extra Heavy (Double Extra Strong)